Management of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder using Picture Exchange Communication System - A Pilot Study

Published

2022-10-31

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.55229/ijbs.v25i2.04

Keywords:

Autism spectrum disorder, PECS, Communicative functions, Parental feedback

Dimensions Badge

Authors

  • Preethy Susan Reni Department of Audiology and Speech Language Pathology, National Institute of Speech & Hearing, Trivandrum, Kerala, India.
  • Kadayam S. Kalyani KANAV Rehabilitation Services for Special Needs, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India,
  • Aishwarya Nagarajan All India Institute of Speech and Hearing, Naimisham Campus, Manasagangothri, Mysuru, Karnataka, India.
  • Khaarthigha Senthilnathan Department of Audiology and Speech Language Pathology, SRM Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre, Potheri, SRM Nagar, Kattankulathur, Tamil Nadu, India.

Abstract

Aim: The aim of the study was to empirically assess the efficacy of Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) in 5 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study was also intended to report parental feedback on using PECS with their children.
Method: Purposive convenient sampling was used for this quasi-experimental study. Five nonverbal children who were diagnosed with mild to moderate autism spectrum disorder with a median age of 4.1 years were selected for the study. All the five participants who exhibited limited or no functional communication skills were recruited for the study. Exclusion criteria included presence of any syndrome or any significant medical conditions such as seizures. The pre-assessment and the post assessments after 24 sessions of PECS training were done using selected communicative function domains. Post therapy parental feedback was obtained concerning five categories which are communication intent, attention, behavioural issues, vocalization and ease of communication. Also frequency of initiation as observed in home settings was obtained by interview method.
Results: Current study shows that all the children were able to use PECS spontaneously and independently without any physical prompts. Children were able to generalize PECS at home with ease and were able to initiate communication on their own using the pictures. The mothers of the children reported that they observed a drastic subsidence in children’s challenging behaviours and also improvement in their attention span. The findings from our study showed that PECS training is effective in improving the socio-communication skills in children with ASD who had restricted communication. On analysing the report, mothers stated that they were able to easily incorporate PECS at home with their child as it implements the use of actual pictures for communicative exchange. As PECS training paves the way for expression of the child’s needs, there was also a significant reduction in the children’s behavioural problems such as tantrums and other self-injurious behaviours.
Conclusion: From this study, it can be concluded that PECS training is effective in improving various communicative temptations in socio-communication skills in children with ASD who have restricted communication. It was also noted that obtaining parental feedback periodically would help in generalization and it encourages the parents’ involvement in the child’s learning process.

How to Cite

Susan Reni, P., S. Kalyani, K., Nagarajan, A., & Senthilnathan, K. (2022). Management of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder using Picture Exchange Communication System - A Pilot Study. Indian Journal of Behavioural Sciences, 25(02), 93–99. https://doi.org/10.55229/ijbs.v25i2.04

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Preethy Susan Reni, Department of Audiology and Speech Language Pathology, National Institute of Speech & Hearing, Trivandrum, Kerala, India.

M.Sc Speech & Hearing, Lecturer-Speech Language Pathologist, Department of Audiology and Speech Language Pathology, National Institute of Speech & Hearing, Trivandrum, Kerala, India, 695011

Kadayam S. Kalyani, KANAV Rehabilitation Services for Special Needs, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India,

M.ASLP, Chief coordinator and senior Speech Language Pathologist, KANAV rehabilitation services for special needs, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India,600127

Aishwarya Nagarajan, All India Institute of Speech and Hearing, Naimisham Campus, Manasagangothri, Mysuru, Karnataka, India.

Pursuing Masters in Speech Language Pathology at All India Institute of Speech and Hearing, Mysuru, India

Khaarthigha Senthilnathan, Department of Audiology and Speech Language Pathology, SRM Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre, Potheri, SRM Nagar, Kattankulathur, Tamil Nadu, India.

Pursuing MAsters in Speech Language Pathology in SRM Medical College, Hospital and Research Center, Kattankulathur, Tamilnadu,India

References

Edition F. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. Am Psychiatric Assoc. 2013;21:591-643.

Prizant BM. Language acquisition and communicative behavior in autism: Toward an understanding of the" whole" of it. Journal of speech and hearing disorders. 1983 Aug;48(3):296-307.

Frea WD, Arnold CL, Vittimberga GL. A demonstration of the effects of augmentative communication on the extreme aggressive behavior of a child with autism within an integrated preschool setting. Journal of positive behavior interventions. 2001 Oct;3(4):194-8.

Bondy AS, Frost LA. The picture exchange communication system. Focus on autistic behavior. 1994 Aug;9(3):1-9.

Frost L, Bondy A. The picture exchange communication system training manual. Pyramid Educational Products; 2002.

Bondy AS, Frost LA. Mands across the water: A report on the application of the picture-exchange communication system in Peru. The Behavior Analyst. 1993;16(1):123.

Siegel B. Behavioral and educational treatments for autism spectrum disorders. The Advocate. 2000 Nov;33(1):22-5.

Yarnall PA. Current interventions in autism-a brief analysis. The Advocate. 2000 Nov;33:25-7.

Charlop‐Christy MH, Carpenter M, Le L, LeBlanc LA, Kellet K. Using the picture exchange communication system (PECS) with children with autism: Assessment of PECS acquisition, speech, social‐communicative behavior, and problem behavior. Journal of applied behavior analysis. 2002 Sep;35(3):213-31.

Ganz JB, Simpson RL. Effects on communicative requesting and speech development of the picture exchange communication system in children with characteristics of autism. Journal of autism and developmental disorders. 2004 Aug;34(4):395-409.

Malhotra S, Rajender G, Bhatia MS, Singh TB. Effects of picture exchange communication system on communication and behavioral anomalies in autism. Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine. 2010 Jul;32(2):141-3.

Usha, K. (2017) Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) to communicate daily needs- A child with autism. Scholarly Research Journal for Humanity Science & English Language. 2017;vol 4/22: 5457-5470

Alsayedhassan BT, Banda DR, Lee J, Kim Y, Griffin-Shirley N. A survey of parents’ perceptions of Picture Exchange Communication System for children with autism spectrum disorders and other developmental disabilities. Clinical Archives of Communication Disorders. 2019 Apr 30;4(1):1-9.

Carr D, Felce J. The effects of PECS teaching to Phase III on the communicative interactions between children with autism and their teachers. Journal of autism and developmental disorders. 2007 Apr;37(4):724-37.

Kravits TR, Kamps DM, Kemmerer K, Potucek J. Brief report: Increasing communication skills for an elementary-aged student with autism using the picture exchange communication system. Journal of autism and developmental disorders. 2002 Jun;32(3):225-30.

Tincani M. Comparing the picture exchange communication system and sign language training for children with autism. Focus on autism and other developmental disabilities. 2004 Aug;19(3):152-63.

Yoder P, Stone WL. Randomized comparison of two communication interventions for preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology. 2006 Jun;74(3):426.

Happé F, Frith U. Theory of mind in autism. InLearning and cognition in autism 1995 (pp. 177-197). Springer, Boston, MA.

Lerna A, Esposito D, Conson M, Russo L, Massagli A. Social–communicative effects of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) in autism spectrum disorders. International journal of language & communication disorders. 2012 Sep;47(5):609-17.

Heneker S, Page LM. Functional communication: The impact of PECS™. Speech and Language Therapy in Practice. 2003:12-5.